Calcium and Bone Health

Calcium in the Body

Most of the calcium in the body is in the bones. There is a tiny amount in the blood stream which is responsible for important functions such as muscle contraction, maintenance of the heartbeat, and transmission of nerve impulses. We constantly lose calcium from our blood through urine, sweat, and feces. It is restored with calcium from the bones. To maintain bone calcium, we must get enough calcium from our diet.

Although specific dietary needs may differ for certain age groups, getting enough calcium is always important. Calcium needs are the greatest during adolescence and young adulthood. For that reason, it is recommended that individuals in those age groups eat between 1,000-1,300 mg calcium per day to maximize bone health.

A number of factors may affect how well calcium is used for building bones:

Exercise slows bone loss and is one of the most important factors in maintaining bone health.
Diets that are high in protein, caffeine, and salt cause more calcium to be lost through the urine.
Alcohol and smoking inhibit calcium absorption.

Where Can I Find Calcium?

Dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and cheese are excellent sources of calcium. There are non-dairy food sources of calcium as well including dark green leafy vegetables, such as bok choy and broccoli, almonds, and some grains. Some foods are fortified with calcium including calcium set tofu, and fortified orange juice, cereals, and soy or nut milks.

FOOD AMOUNT CALCIUM (MG)
Yogurt 1 cup 415
Cheddar Cheese 1.5 oz 307
Milk 1 cup 293
Soymilk 1 cup 299
Orange Juice (fortified) 6 oz 261
Tofu, firm 1/2 cup 253
Salmon, canned 3 oz 181
Turnip Greens, cooked 1/2 cup 103
Kale, raw 1 cup 100
Broccoli, raw 1/2 cup 21



For more information visit:
CDC: Calcium and Bone Health
NIH: Calcium Fact Sheet
ChooseMyPlate.gov: Dairy
EatRight.org – What is Calcium?


Sources:
Information adapted from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention